Physics-Mechanics, Optics and Waves,and Electricity and Magnetism will introduce students to topics in Newtonian Mechanics, Classical Optics and Waves, and Electricity and Magnetism. Students will utilize math from Algebra II throughout the course, and occasionally trigonometry. Students should have taken Algebra II and passed with a B or better, and it would be in their best interest to take precalculus concurrently. The fall term will focus on Newtonian Mechanics, the winter term on Optics and the spring term on Electricity and Magnetism. The course will rely heavily on student lead inquiry especially during labs.

Homework:

Spring Term:

March 22- DEL Chapter 16 March 24- Practice problems 436 and section review on 438 March 25 - Problems 53, 55, 58, 69 March 28- Find an article on wave-particle duality and create a double entry log 3/29- Section rev. 17.1 and DEL 17 3/31 Section Rev. 17.2 and Practice problems 17 4/1 DEL 18 4/4 Chapter 18.1 pg 487 Practice problems. Along with 67 and 70 from the chapter problems

4/19 4pg paper-- 25% of the page should be diagrams and supporting pictures. You will explain the demonstrations you created in each of the following experiments. Colored Shadows (4), Law of Reflection and Lateral Inversion (4-5), Caustic Curve or Spherical Aberration(8), Apparent Depth(12),Total Internal Reflection in a Prism (14). Rough Draft due friday. Images and diagrams must be created by you from your notes but using software. This is a synthesis of your observations and notes, with research in an attempt to explain the principles in classical optics involved in each experiment.

4/25-- DEL Chapter 20 5/2 Complete 20.1 and 20.2 section reviews along with problems 43, 46, 48 and 51 by the end of the week.

These notes are intended to supplement your class notes, they don't always give the complete story but can help to back up what you've learned or get you started on what you have missed.

## Physics

Instructor- Mr.WelchClassroom CC21

Office- Science office (963-4747)

jwelch@hyde.edu

## Table of Contents

## Course Description

Physics-Mechanics, Optics and Waves,and Electricity and Magnetism will introduce students to topics in Newtonian Mechanics, Classical Optics and Waves, and Electricity and Magnetism. Students will utilize math from Algebra II throughout the course, and occasionally trigonometry. Students should have taken Algebra II and passed with a B or better, and it would be in their best interest to take precalculus concurrently. The fall term will focus on Newtonian Mechanics, the winter term on Optics and the spring term on Electricity and Magnetism. The course will rely heavily on student lead inquiry especially during labs.

Homework:## Spring Term:

March 22- DEL Chapter 16March 24- Practice problems 436 and section review on 438

March 25 - Problems 53, 55, 58, 69

March 28- Find an article on wave-particle duality and create a double entry log

3/29- Section rev. 17.1 and DEL 17

3/31 Section Rev. 17.2 and Practice problems 17

4/1 DEL 18

4/4 Chapter 18.1 pg 487 Practice problems. Along with 67 and 70 from the chapter problems

4/19 4pg paper-- 25% of the page should be diagrams and supporting pictures. You will explain the demonstrations you created in each of the following experiments. Colored Shadows (4), Law of Reflection and Lateral Inversion (4-5), Caustic Curve or Spherical Aberration(8), Apparent Depth(12),Total Internal Reflection in a Prism (14). Rough Draft due friday. Images and diagrams must be created by you from your notes but using software. This is a synthesis of your observations and notes, with research in an attempt to explain the principles in classical optics involved in each experiment.

4/25-- DEL Chapter 20

5/2 Complete 20.1 and 20.2 section reviews along with problems 43, 46, 48 and 51 by the end of the week.

## Important Documents

Syllabus w/ Unit Plans-Standard Syllabus-

Class Notes 2014Fall

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/prefixes.htmlUnits and MeasurementUnits and Properties of matter-standard f13.jpg Scientific Notation Review-Standard F13.jpg

Linear Functions in Physics 13.jpg Quadratic Functions in Physics 13.jpg Line of best fit Physics 13.jpg

What is dimensional analysis? What is physics? more dimensional analysis and a little scientific notation What happened when we measured the table Accuracy vs. Linear.jpg Quadratic.jpg inverse square.jpg

purpose notes.jpg procedure notes.jpg Data-Conclusion Notes.jpg more conclusion notes.jpg

## Kinematics

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/one-dimensional-motionDistance vs Displacement 13.jpg Position vs. Time Graphs 13.jpgPosition vs. Time Graphs 2 13.jpg

Defining acceleration.jpg

introduction to kinematic equations Physics 13.jpg an example problem involving two kinematic equations Physics 13.jpg

## Forces and Newton's Laws

Direc proportionality vs inverse Physics 13.jpg Newton's Laws Physics 13.jpg Combining Forces Physics 13.jpg Net Force Physics 13.jpgNewtons 3rd law, tension, the normal http://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/newton-s-3rd/1659712/?ref=app Mass Vs. Weight.jpg

Example problem pt1 [[file:Newton's 2nd example problems standard 14 pt2.jpg|example problem pt2 ]] example problem part3 Newton's 1st law-another definition Newton's 2nd law explained

## Introduction to trigonometry and vectors

-Intro to trig 1 Physics 13.jpg Intro to trig 2 Physics 13.jpg Intro to trig 3 Physics 13.jpg Intro to trig 4 Physics 13.jpg Intro to trig 5 Physics 13.jpgAdding Vectors Intro Physics13.jpg

## Components of forces, friction, and projectiles.

Components of forces and the normal force Physics 13.jpg A block sliding down a plane Physics13.jpgIntroduction to friction 1 physics 13.jpg Introduction to friction 2 physics 13.jpg

Intro to projectiles 1.jpg Intro to projectiles 2.jpg Projectile shot horizontally from a height

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57vdgKzBwJw Part 2http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRozP2_yQgc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WBUaJX79EI Part 4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjevM5gOt0A

## Gravity and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation.jpg All objects with mass are gravitationally attracted.jpg Orbits 1.jpg Orbits are Elliptical.jpg Orbits example.jpg## Rotational Dynamics, Torque, equillibrium

Connecting Linear and Angular Quantities.jpg Defining Lever, Lever Arm and Torque.jpg Center of mass and equillibrium (rough).jpgTorque Sample Problem 1.jpg A wrench problem.jpg The See-Saw (complete).jpg

Newton's Second Law- Rotational.jpg

## Linear and Angular Momentum

Definition of Momentum- Relationship to Force.jpg Applying the Impulse-Momentum Theory.jpgIntro to conservation of momentum.jpg Recoil.. in space!.jpg an elastic collison.jpg

1-D car crash.jpg 2-D car crash.jpg Conservation of Angular Mometum.jpg Car rolling down a hill with collision pt 1.jpg Car rolling down a hill with collision part 2.jpg

Heat and TemperatureReview of linear albgebra for ABS 0 lab.jpg discussing temperature scales.jpg discussing kinetic energy of a gas confined to a boundary.jpg The graph we will create in our ABS 0 lab.jpg http://www.statisticshowto.com/articles/how-to-find-a-linear-regression-equation/

Specific Heat 1.jpg Specific Heat 2.jpg http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/heat.html

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/v/thermodynamics-part-1

definition of pressure.jpg why use hydraulics.jpg pressure under a fluid.jpg

Waves and SoundDiagram of wave basics.jpg Wave equation and superposition.jpg The harbor problem- constructive and destuctive interference.jpg what are sound waves.jpg

Heat's relationship with KE An interseting question about gases Some neat concepts about temperature to look up Specific Heat

Finding pressure on a diver Buoancy Pressure and Hydraulics

## February

How we found absolute zero (an example graph) Introducing the pedulum Sample data from the pedulum labAnatomy of a wave measuring waves Completely out of phase basic superposition of waves

two slit interference The pen in water, laser pointer and the mirror, the curly plastic "thing-a-ma-bob"

What is Sound? Doppler pt1 Doppler part 2 Resonance in a closed pipe A rough example of data collection for the speed of sound lab

http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/flutes.v.clarinets.html

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/waves-and-optics

Classical OpticsBasic info about light.jpg Recall the wave equation and apply to light.jpg You might also like to read

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_scattering

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/163008/diffraction

Light and inverse square laws 1.jpg Light and inverse square laws 2.jpg Light and inverse square laws 3.jpg

What is color.jpg Polarization.jpg Malus' law.jpg Doppler effect for light.jpg

Two Slit-harbor problem.jpg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdnL_S4qdTU -- wave particle duality

Law of reflection.jpg Plane Mirrors.jpg Mirror vocabulary and diagram.jpg Two rough examples of ray diagrams.jpg

Total internal reflection.jpg

## Class Notes 2012:

These notes are intended to supplement your class notes, they don't always give the complete story but can help to back up what you've learned or get you started on what you have missed.## Fall:

## September-

9-4--9-5What is dimensional analysis? What is physics? more dimensional analysis and a little scientific notation

9-7 What happened when we measured the table Accuracy vs. Precision What happened when we used the spring scale What needs to change to build a better lab

9-8 Refresher on a few types of functions Linear.jpg Quadratic.jpg inverse square.jpg

9-11 Lab corrections

9-12 Timing an event lab purpose notes.jpg procedure notes.jpg Data-Conclusion Notes.jpg more conclusion notes.jpg

9-14 Representing motion Displacement vs Distance.jpg working with a constant velocity graph.jpg Real velocity vs time data.jpg avg velocity taken two ways.jpg The idea of instantaneous velocity.jpg limitations of the particle model.jpg limitations of the particle model pt 2.jpg

9-17 Acceleration and Kinematic Eqs Defining acceleration.jpg Relating V vs T graphs to X vs T.jpg How to break down X vs T graphs.jpg How to break down V vs T graphs.jpg looking at the kinematic equations.jpg

9-18 No notes

9-19 Intro to Newton's Laws.jpg The normal force and equillibrium.jpg Equillibrium Continued.jpg

9-21 Mass Vs. Weight.jpg Combining Forces in 1D example.jpg

9-24 Newton's Third Law- The Normal, and Tensions w/ example problem http://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/newton-s-3rd/1659712/?ref=app

9-25 Graphing Demo graphing demonstration.jpg x vs t.cmbl v vs t.cmbl a vs t.cmbl (you will need to get logger pro software from me to view the graphs we created with the venier motion detector.

## October

10-03 No notes please refer to last years notes from 9-30 found below.10-08 Friction 1 Friction 2 Friction 3 Friction 4 Friction 5 Finding mu.jpg

10-09 Inclined Planes and Critical Angle 1.jpg Inclined Planes and Critical Angle 2.jpg Inclined Planes and Critical Angle 3.jpg Chapter 5 Problem 92.jpg

10-11 Refer to notes from 10/04/2011 Hanging Mass Problem.jpg

10-12 Intro to projectiles 1.jpg Intro to projectiles 2.jpg projectile shot horizontally off a cliff

10-15 Please refer to 10/12/2011 jump shot

10-23 Uniform Circular Motion 1.jpg Uniform Circular Motion 2.jpg Uniform Circular Motion 3.jpg

10-24 through 10-26 No Notes saved. Review your problem sets and notes from chapters 5 and 6

10-30 Great website for understanding the atwoods machine problem that was on your test

http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/semester1/c6_inclined_atwood.html

## November

11/1 Kepler, Gravitation, and Inverse Square Laws Orbits are Elliptical.jpg Keplers Laws.jpg Why does gravity exist.jpg All objects with mass are gravitationally attracted.jpg Inverse Square Law.jpg NLUG is inverse square law 1.jpg NLUG is inverse square law 2.jpg11/2 Introduction to circular orbits Orbits 1.jpg Orbits example.jpg

11/6 Review Day 1: Review Day 1 section 1.jpg Review Day 1 section 2.jpg Review Day 1 Section 3.jpg Review Day 1 Section 4.jpg Review Day 1 Section 5.jpg

11/8 Review Day 2- Force in 2D: Review Day 2 Force in 2 Dimensions 1.jpg Review Day 2 Force in 2 Dimensions 2.jpg Reveiw Day 2 Force in 2 Dimensions 3.jpg Reveiw Day 2 Force in 2 Dimensions 4.jpg

## Winter:

## November

11/27 Connecting Linear and Angular Quantities. Connecting Linear and Angular Quantities.jpg11/28 Introducing Torque Defining Lever, Lever Arm and Torque.jpg Defining the lever arm.jpg Torque Sample Problem 1.jpg A wrench problem.jpg The See-Saw (complete).jpg

11/29- More about Torque-- Newton's Second Law- Rotational.jpg

## December

12/3 Center of mass Center of Mass for two particles.jpg Center of mass and equillibrium (rough).jpg12/7 Impulse-Momentum Theory Definition of Momentum- Relationship to Force.jpg Applying the Impulse-Momentum Theory.jpg

## January

1/4 Welcome back. Today we completed sample problems on the impulse-momentum theorem. There were no class notes1/7 Conservation of Momentum-Day 1 Intro to conservation of momentum.jpg Recoil.. in space!.jpg an elastic collison.jpg

1/8 Conservation of Momentum-Day 2 1-D car crash.jpg 2-D car crash.jpg Conservation of Angular Mometum.jpg Car rolling down a hill with collision pt 1.jpg Car rolling down a hill with collision part 2.jpg

1/22 absolute zero lab preparation Review of linear albgebra for ABS 0 lab.jpg discussing temperature scales.jpg discussing kinetic energy of a gas confined to a boundary.jpg The graph we will create in our ABS 0 lab.jpg

1/28 http://www.statisticshowto.com/articles/how-to-find-a-linear-regression-equation/

1/30 Temperature changes in materials and specific heat. Specific Heat 1.jpg Specific Heat 2.jpg

## February

2/4 Introduction to pressure definition of pressure.jpg why use hydraulics.jpg pressure under a fluid.jpg2/5 Demonstration day. It took us 3:30 to boil 100ml of water from an initial temparature of 19 degrees celsius. What did that demonstrate?

2/8 Pendulum demonstration Intro to pendulum demonstration notes.jpg

2/11 Waves Diagram of wave basics.jpg Wave equation and superposition.jpg The harbor problem- constructive and destuctive interference.jpg what are sound waves.jpg

2/12 Physics of music (resonance) I find this site to be very helpful

http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/flutes.v.clarinets.html

## Spring

## March

3/21 exam corrections-No notes3/22 Intro to light- Basic info about light.jpg Recall the wave equation and apply to light.jpg You might also like to read

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_scattering and this explains diffraction pretty concisely

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/163008/diffraction

3/25 Light and inverse square laws Light and inverse square laws 1.jpg Light and inverse square laws 2.jpg Light and inverse square laws 3.jpg

3/26 Color, Polarization, Doppler Effect- What is color.jpg Polarization.jpg Malus' law.jpg Doppler effect for light.jpg

3/28- We took a break to discuss quantum mechanics and light Two Slit-harbor problem.jpg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdnL_S4qdTU -- wave particle duality

3/29- Class discussion about your articles. No notes, no homework.

4/1 and 4/2 Introduction to mirrors and ray diagrams Law of reflection.jpg Plane Mirrors.jpg Mirror vocabulary and diagram.jpg Two rough examples of ray diagrams.jpg

4/4 Practice problems on page 472 were completed in class- No Notes

4/5 homework reveiw- No Notes

4/9 Total internal reflection Total internal reflection.jpg

4/24 Lab notes only. Refer to your lab journal.

## Class Notes 2011:

## Fall:

## September-

9-6--Looking at units How to define physics9-8 Precision vs Accuracy Significant figures accounting for error

9-9Discussion of types of functions Quadratic refresher Discussing x(t) graphs y=ax and y=a/x

9-10Finding human error on stopwatch TOF for object dropped- justification/dimensional analysis Recording data and discussing accuracy Ball Drop- Lab

9-12Displacement vs distance Speed vs. Velocity (vector vs. scalar) Average velocityx(t) graphs, constant velocity and slope average vs instantaneous velocity

9-13Discussing V(t) graphs linear and non linear x(t)- acceleration reading another x(t) graph

9-15Tangent lines and instantaneous vV(t) graphs and constant acceleration

9-16Newton's 2nd 3 laws and a free body diagram Newton's laws in more detail

9-19Ch 4 problem 62 More about Fnet

9-30Trig basics adding vectors-principle of superposition reminder of objectives Adding two forces graphical addition of vectors

Trig Basics (2nd version) Breaking a velocity into its components adding 3 vectors

## October-

10-3Fundamentals of Friction 2 basic friction problems Solving for the coefficient of static friction10-4Force in 2D- hanging mass problem Force in 2D- hanging mass problem 2

10-7atwoods machine on an inclined plane

10-10projectile motion - time of flight independence of components of velocity range-shot from cliff

10-11projectile problem-jump shot

10-12uniform circular motion a centripetal force problem

10-19Ch 6-Problem 63

10-20 Review Notes:Summing forces Friction on a level surface finding an unknown force (equillibrium) list of topics from ch5 car in a skid

10-21 Review Notes: Ch6- review sheet Tank shooting from a cliff the hammer throw football pass

10-31Introduction to Kepler's laws Using Kepler's 3rd Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

## Novemeber-

11-1 Finding orbital velocities for various radii conditions for orbit another orbital velocity problem NLOUG and finding the mass of the earth11-3 ULOG between two objects and resultant a The concept of G field Curved space and G fields

11-4Discussing the g-field of an objectSolving a g-field problem 7.2 rev problem 15aSetting up 7.2 review problem 15b

## Winter-

## December-

11-29 rotational review12-1Levers and Torque Door Problem/Wrench Problem Placing the fulcrum on a balanced see-saw (intro)

12-2See-Saw (complete) Torque on a belt driven disc Newton's 2nd for rotational motion

12-5 Rotational EQ and the tipping point A ladder rests on two saw horses

12-8Impulse and Momentum Calculating Momentum Impulse-Momentum Theorem Rough justification for Impulse Momentum

12-9 Turn Table Demo (intro) Turn Table 2 Turn Table 3 Turn table final

12-12 Comparing Impulse Justification of Conservation of P from Newton's 3rd Thruster Gun Ex Justification of Conservation of Momentum revised Two Dimensional Car Wreck

## January

1-10 Simple Machine Definitions1-12Usefule equations (machines) Compound Macine Basics Example: Problem 86 Multiple Pulleys

1-13Energy, KE, and the W-KE theorem Gravitational and Elastic PE A Gravitational PE problem Introducing Conservation of Energy

1-17 Ch 11 problem 60 Ch 11 Problem 70 Problem 72- two perspectives Emec in bar graphs inelastic collision part 1Part 2

1-27 Heat's relationship with KE An interseting question about gases Some neat concepts about temperature to look up Specific Heat

1-30Finding pressure on a diver Buoancy Pressure and Hydraulics

## February

2-2 How we found absolute zero (an example graph)2-7 Introducing the pedulum Sample data from the pedulum lab

2-9 Anatomy of a wave measuring waves Completely out of phase basic superposition of waves

two slit interference

2-10 Observations from wave demos:The pen in water, laser pointer and the mirror, the curly plastic "thing-a-ma-bob"

2-13 What is Sound? Doppler pt1 Doppler part 2 Resonance in a closed pipe

2-14 A rough example of data collection for the speed of sound lab

## Spring-

## March

3-22 bohr model and photon emission An example of slit page notes Relating frequency and wavelength3-23 Inverse square laws illuminance and luminous flux illuminance vs distance graph

3-26 polarization intro two polarizing lenses Doppler effect and light

3-27 Class discussion/video response- Students generate SPN

3-28 What is a ray diagram (very simple version) Law of reflection Plane mirrors

3-30 introducing curved mirrors curved mirror example 1 example 2 ?duplicate?

## April

4-2 Working with the mirror equation Concave d<f concave d<f also Convex d<f4-4 Intro to refraction part 1 Refraction part 2 w/ sample problem

4-5 Intro to lenses Thin lens equation and example problem

4-12 tro to electrostatics using the electroscope part 1 part 2 part 3

4-18 attraction between a neutral and charged object Grounding the electroscope Force behaves like 1/r^2 The elementary charge and Coulombs

4-19 Electric field strenth relating E to Fe relationship to gravity

4-24 comparing electric potential to grav potential diff defining electric potential difference capacitance

## May

5-2 Discussing Ohm's Law and some imprtant vocab Ohms law and power (dimensional analysis) symbols for circuit diagrams very simple circuit problem5-7 an example of components in series Components in Parallel simplifying a circuit simplifying part 1 part 2 Part 3

5-10 What is a magnet? Types of magnets field of a dipole right hand rules

5-11 forces on current carrying wires current carrying loops in a B field (electric motor) force on a moving charge in a b field dimensioal analysis of Tesla

Powerpoint- extra resources from the AP site which may or may not be useful. I will be adding material geared more towards this class.work and Energy.ppt

vectors.ppt

systems of ptcles.ppt

rotation.ppt

oscillations.ppt

Gravity quick.ppt

force and motion.ppt

Equilibrium.ppt

2D_motion.ppt1-D_motion.ppt

## Helpful Links:

## Demos

Fabulous videos of demonstrations done at Harvard. Check out Pendulum Waves! http://sciencedemonstrations.fas.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=k16940&pageid=icb.page80641Novel demonstrations ("snacks") from San Francisco'sExploratorium: http://exploratorium.edu/snacks/index.html

Useful demos from Michigan Tech:

http://www.phy.mtu.edu/LECDEMO/websit/demolst.htm#1d

UC Berkeley’s Physics Demos: http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/physics/bookadx.html

Bill Beaty’s Science demos and projects – low cost yet highquality:

http://amasci.com/scied.html#demo

Brown University’s demos + :http://www.physics.brown.edu/physics/demopages/Demo/index.htm

Index list of downloadable demo movies from Wake ForestUniversity:

http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/demos/avimov/bychptr/bychptr.htm

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Physics Demonstrations:

http://www.phys.utk.edu/demoroom/

A catalogue of demonstrations from the University ofMaryland:

http://www.physics.umd.edu/lecdem/services/demos/mainindex.htm

SimulationsPhET, anamazing collection of simulations produced at the University of Colorado,Boulder. I especially love the ones onorbital motion ("My Solar System"), the photoelectric effect andnuclear fission: http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/index.php?cat=Featured_Sims

Amazingripple tank simulation (Moire pattern, Doppler effect, etc.): http://www.falstad.com/ripple/

Kepler's LawsSimulations - A good set of simulations showing Kepler's Laws for the planetsin our Solar System as well as custom made orbits.

http://astro.unl.edu/naap/pos/animations/kepler.html

Amazingsimulation allowing you to probe the universe and see planets, stars, galaxies,orbits, spaceship trajectories, etc.: www.shatters.net/**celestia**/

Agood collection of simulations called physics "applets":

http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/index.html

Explanations and simulations concerning atomic and nuclearphysics:

http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/

One of many sites for downloading Gravitation Ltd. (fororbital motion, using Apple computers):

http://free-game-downloads.mosw.com/abandonware/pc/educational_games/games_e_m/gravitation_ltd_.html

Collision simulator: http://www.blackgold.ab.ca/ict/Division4/Science/Div.%204/collisions/index.htm

## Of the utmost importance!

http://www.flickr.com/photos/phyz/sets/72157625985944742/